24 solar terms of the lunar calendar
Twenty-four solar terms is a supplementary calendar that absorbs the "twenty-four solar terms" of the Ganzhi calendar to guide agriculture. It is the accumulation of long-term experience and wisdom of the ancient Chinese working people.
Twenty-four solar terms are: early spring, rainwater, startle, spring equinox, Qingming, Valley rain, early summer, Xiaomang, awn seed, summer solstice, small summer, big summer, early autumn, summer, white dew, autumn equinox, cold dew, frost, early winter, light snow, heavy snow, winter solstice, small cold and cold.
Twenty-four specific seasons representing seasonal changes were established in ancient times. The intangible cultural heritage of the 24 solar terms is very rich. It includes not only related proverbs, ballads, legends, but also traditional production tools, living utensils, handicrafts, paintings and calligraphy. It also includes Chinese Festival culture, production rituals and folk customs closely related to festivals.
Twenty-four solar terms are the concrete manifestation of ancient Chinese agricultural civilization and have high research value of agricultural history and culture. On May 20, 2006, the 24 solar terms declared by the China Agricultural Museum were listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists with the approval of the State Council.
The history of solar terms
Twenty-four specific seasons representing seasonal changes in the Ganzhi calendar were established in the ancient times. The Han Dynasty absorbed 24 solar terms as a supplementary calendar to guide farming. In Huainanzi, the name of 24 solar terms is exactly the same as that of modern times. This is the earliest record of 24 solar terms in existing literature. It is said that the 24 solar terms are based on the temporal variations of the celestial phenomena, temperature, precipitation and phenology in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. For other parts of China, the situation described by the same solar terms may be quite different. But in fact, although the "Four Rights" can reflect the distinct climatic characteristics of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the specific climatic significance of the "Four Rights" is not significant. Climatologically, the beginning of spring is usually divided into five days, when the average daily temperature is above 10 C. It does not agree with the meaning of spring in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. Only Lingnan is the place where spring really enters. "At the beginning of spring, the dividing line between winter and spring in our country (the daily average temperature is above 10 degrees Celsius for five consecutive days) is from Guilin in Guangxi to Ganzhou in Jiangxi Province. South of that line, there is a spring breath at the beginning of spring, but 93% of China's land area is still winter. To Heilongjiang, it is often spring at the beginning of summer when the rain falls. The so-called "beginning of spring" is only an "idea". Because of China's vast territory and changeable topography, the 24 solar terms are only a reference for many regions. Textual research on unearthed cultural relics from archaeology shows that the solar calendar was adopted in the Western Han Dynasty. There are eight sections and twenty-four solar terms recorded in the book Zhou Bi Suan Jing of the Han Dynasty. Most of them indicate climate change, physical differences and close integration with agriculture. Therefore, at that time, we could grasp the seasonal changes from the eight and twenty-four solar terms, and decided to sow and harvest crops in time.
Each of the 24 solar terms is divided into twelve months, with about half a month apart. Each month has two solar terms. In the 24 solar terms, "festival" refers to a period of time in a year, while "qi" refers to climate, which is an overview of weather changes. It is the name given by the ancients according to the unique climate or phenology phenomena and agricultural activities in each stage. Together, the two words refer to weather changes at some stage of the year.
Since ancient times, China has been a very developed country in agriculture. Because of the close relationship between agriculture and meteorology, the ancient Chinese working people accumulated rich experience on the relationship between agricultural time and seasonal change from their long-term agricultural labor practice. In order to memorize conveniently, a word of the 24 solar terms is linked together to form a song recipe: "Spring rain, spring and clear valley, summer and summer, autumn dew and autumn cold and frost fall, winter snow and winter small big cold."
The formulation of 24 solar terms integrates astronomy and meteorology as well as the characteristics of crop growth. It accurately reflects the characteristics of natural forces in a year, so it is still used in agricultural production and is loved by farmers. The solar term is a precious scientific heritage created by the ancestors of the Chinese nation through thousands of years of practice. It is a tool to reflect the changes of weather, climate and phenology, grasp the agricultural season, and affect the food, clothing and housing of millions of households.
In Shangshu, there are only four names of solar terms in Shang Dynasty and eight names of solar terms in Zhou Dynasty. The name of 24 solar terms first appeared in Liu An's "Huainanzi Astronomical Training" in the Western Han Dynasty, and in the "Six Essentials of Commentary" in Shiji Taishigong's "Preface to History", the concepts of Yin and Yang, four hours, eight places, twelve degrees and twenty-four solar terms were also mentioned. In ancient China, the lunar calendar (lunar calendar) was used to record time, and the solar calendar (solar calendar) was used to divide the 24 solar terms of spring, summer, autumn and winter. Our ancestors called five days a season, three seasons a season, called solar terms, the whole year is divided into 72 seasons and 24 solar terms.
Nomenclature of solar terms
The nomenclature of 24 solar terms reflects the seasons, climatic phenomena, climate change and so on.
There are eight solar terms which indicate the change of winter and summer: the first spring, the spring equinox, the first summer, the summer solstice, the first autumn, the autumn equinox, the first winter and the winter solstice.
The symbols of temperature change are: small heat, big heat, summer, small cold, big cold five solar terms;
The precipitation is reflected by seven solar terms: rainwater, grain rain, white dew, cold dew, frost, light snow and heavy snow.
There are four solar terms in response to phenological phenomena or agricultural activities: sting, Qingming, Xiaomang and awn seed.
Spring equinox, autumn equinox, summer solstice and winter solstice are classified from astronomical angle, reflecting the turning point of solar height change.
The beginning of spring, summer, autumn and winter reflects the beginning of the four seasons. Because of the vast territory of China and the obvious monsoon and continental climate, there are great differences in weather and climate in different regions, so there are also great differences in the four seasons in different regions.
The three solar terms of white dew, cold dew and frost fall reflect the phenomena of condensation and sublimation of water vapor on the surface, but essentially reflect the process and degree of gradual decrease of temperature.
Enteromorphism, Qingming reflects the natural phenomena, especially Enteromorphism, which predicts the return of spring with the early thunder in the sky and the recovery of underground Enteromorphia.
Exquisite Naming of Twenty-Four Solar Terms
Twenty-four solar terms reflect the annual movement of the sun, so the dates of solar terms are basically fixed in the current calendar. The first half is on the 6th and 21st days, and the second half is on the 8th and 23rd days, with a difference of 1 to 2 days.
"Li" means the beginning of each season throughout the year. Four "Li" in spring, summer, autumn and winter means the beginning of four solar terms.
Lichun, Lixia, Liqiu and Lidong are also called "Four Rights". In the Gregorian calendar, it is usually around February 4, May 5, August 7 and November 7. "Four Li" means the beginning of the astronomical season. In terms of climate, it is still in the last season, such as the beginning of spring and the middle of winter in the Yellow River Basin.
"Zhi" is the most significant meaning. Summer solstice and winter solstice are collectively called "two solstices", which means the arrival of summer and winter. Summer solstice and winter solstice are usually on June 21 and December 22 of the Gregorian calendar. At the summer solstice, the sun shines directly at 23.5 degrees north latitude and 90 degrees yellow longitude, with the longest daytime in the northern hemisphere. During the winter solstice, the sun shines directly at 23.5 degrees south latitude and 270 degrees yellow longitude, with the shortest daytime in the northern hemisphere.
"Dividing" here means dividing equally. Spring equinox and autumn equinox are called "dichotomy", which means the length of day and night is equal. These two solar terms are generally around March 20 and September 23 of the Gregorian calendar. At the equinox of spring and autumn, the ecliptic and equatorial planes intersect. At this time, the longitude of yellow is 0 degrees and 180 degrees respectively. The sun shines directly on the equator, day and night are equal.
Lichun: Lichun means the beginning. Lichun means the beginning of spring.
Rainfall: Rainfall begins, and the amount of rain increases gradually.
Insect frightening: Insect means Tibet. Hibernation refers to the sudden movement of spring thunder, which awakens the animals dormant in the soil to hibernate.
Spring Equinox: Dividing means dividing equally. The vernal equinox means the equinox of day and night.
Qingming: It's sunny and lush.
Grain Rain: Rain makes a hundred valleys. Rainfall is plentiful and timely, and cereal crops can thrive.
Lixia: The beginning of summer.
Xiao Full: The grains of summer crops such as wheat are beginning to be full.
Awn seed: wheat and other awn crops mature.
Summer Solstice: Hot summer is coming.
Xiao Shu: Summer is hot. Xiaoshu is the beginning of hot weather.
Dashu: The hottest time of the year.
Liqiu: The beginning of autumn.
Summer: Place means to stop and hide. Summer is the end of a hot summer day.
Bailu: The weather turns cool and the dew turns white.
Autumn Equinox: Diurnal Equinox.
Cold Dew: The dew is cold and will freeze.
Frost: It's getting colder and frosty.
Lidong: The beginning of winter.
Snow: It's beginning to snow.
Heavy snow: More snow falls and the ground may be covered with snow.
Winter Solstice: Cold winter comes.
Little Cold: The climate is beginning to be cold.
Dahan: The coldest time of the year.
Classification of solar terms
24 solar terms can be divided into three categories according to the phenomena they react to:
The first category reflects the seasons. The two equinoxes (spring equinox, autumn equinox), two solstices (summer solstice, winter solstice) and four Li (spring, summer, autumn and winter) are used to indicate the season and divide the year into four seasons. Dichotomy and solstice are turning points in the change of solar height. Because it is divided from an astronomical point of view, it is applicable to all parts of China. Four stands are not always the same. Although it also reflects the beginning of the season astronomically, due to China's vast territory, the monsoon and continental climate are extremely significant, and the climate varies widely, so the start date and duration of four seasons are different in different regions, some regions have distinct seasons, some regions are not very obvious, and even the whole season does not appear. For example, there is no summer in the alpine areas north of Ouhu in Heilongjiang Province and in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, there is a saying: "Cotton is still in the summer of June, but it is mostly cold all year round." There is no winter in the south of Fuzhou in South China. In some areas, almost all the year round, it is summer. It is true that "grass survives winter without withering, flowers blossom not in spring", "Summer comes at all times, and autumn comes at every rain". Yunnan-Guizhou plateau and other plateau scenes, winter is short without summer, Kunming has the name of "four seasons like spring". So although Sili is astronomically divided, it has a strong regional character, and it can not be adapted to the whole country.
The second category reflects climate characteristics. There are five solar terms directly reflecting the heat condition: small heat, big heat, getting hot, small cold and big cold. They are used to indicate the degree of different periods of the year and the approaching passing of summer heat. The four solar terms of rain, grain rain, light snow and heavy snow directly reflect the precipitation phenomena, indicating the time and intensity of rainfall and snow. In addition, although the three solar terms of white dew, cold dew and frost fall are condensation and sublimation of water vapor, they also reflect the process of gradual temperature drop and the degree of temperature drop in each solar term. First, the temperature began to decrease, water vapor condensation more; later, the temperature dropped even more, not only more dew, but also cooled, but also did not freeze; finally, the temperature fell below zero Celsius, water vapor condensation frost. From the point of view of agricultural production, the heat meaning of these three solar terms is more specific and vivid than their water meaning.
The third category reflects phenological phenomena. Xiaomang and Manchurian seeds reflect the ripeness and harvest of crops, and Jingming and Qingming reflect natural phenomena, especially Jingming. They use the early thunder in the sky and the recovery of underground worms to inform all things of the world about the return of spring to the earth.
Regularity of solar terms
People usually know the exact time of solar terms through the ecliptic calendar. There is also an algorithm for calculating the date and speed of solar terms.
General Formula of Longevity Star ---L
Y = years, D = 0.2422, L = leap years, C depends on solar terms and years.
In another case, if you know the exact time of a solar term in the previous year, you can easily calculate it by a ballad. The following year is the time of the solar term. The rules of the solar term are as follows:
On the fifth day of the first spring, at three o'clock, stung back at three o'clock.
The season of the Qing Dynasty begins at 9:3 p.m. and ends at 9:30 p.m.
Mangzhi retreated two days, one hour, three days and five hours
Five days back Sanli Autumn Festival Bailu six days back a week
Cold Dew Six Days plus Six Days Winter Six Days and Seven Days Tour
Snow falls from 4 o'clock on the 6th to 9 o'clock on the 5th.
1. The phrase "five days and three hours of the first spring" means that if you want to know which day the first spring of this year is, you should first know the time of the first spring of the previous year. For example, I want to know the beginning of spring in 1998. Just know the beginning of spring in 1997. The beginning of spring in 1997 is at Yinshi on December 27, 1996. According to the recipe of the song, five days and three hours are added, and the beginning of the month in 1997 is six days. (Because December 1996 is a small month, but 27 people are in spring, it should be counted as that day. On December 27, Yinshi 15 days and 3:106 days are equal to the end of the eighth day of the first month of 1998. Note: If there was a leap month last year, the actual time of spring would be advanced by one month. (Actually, it started on the eighth day of the first lunar month in 1998)
2. As long as we know the beginning of spring in 1998, we can introduce the whole year's Festival time. Take 1998 as an example, the beginning of spring in 1998 is the eighth day of the first lunar month. Then the beginning of spring in 1998, as long as we retreat three hours on the basis of the beginning of spring, that is, the beginning of February in 1998, the eighth and fifth day of the first lunar month. (calendar intersection time: 8 Yinshi in early February)
3. "A moment of the Qing Dynasty" is based on the time of the beginning of spring, adding an hour and a small month as the intersection time of the Qingming Dynasty. For example, the beginning of spring in 1998 is the eighth day of the first month of the first month plus an hour (here we should pay attention to that there is an hour from the beginning of spring to the beginning of the Qingming Dynasty, so it should be one day). Therefore, the end of the ninth day of March in 1998 will be the beginning of the Qingming Dynasty. (The calendar of ten thousand years falls on the ninth day of the first three months of March)
4. Likewise, on the basis of the beginning of spring in this year, plus nine hours and three minutes, plus a few months, for the beginning of summer festival (from the beginning of spring to the beginning of summer, two days should be added), the eighth hour is 12 days and the nineteenth hour equals the ugly hour of the Eleventh day. (Summer falls on the ugly day of April 11). (The actual calendar falls between April 10 and the ugly day.)
5. "Mangzhi retreated for one hour on two days" is the same as "Mangzhi" on the basis of this spring day, plus two days reduced to one hour, plus two days in February, March and two small months, 12 days at the eighth hour, 12 days at the eleventh hour and 12 days at the Eleventh hour, that is, the summer crossed on May 12 at the Eleventh hour. (The calendar falls at 3:00 on May 12)
6. "Ming and summer three days and five hours" are the same, with the spring day as the criterion plus three days and five hours, plus a small number of months, that is, the summer festival time, 13 days at the eighth hour and 13 days at the fifth hour = 14 days at the Eleventh hour. (There are three months from the beginning of spring to the summer, so add three days.) So in 1998, there was a summer on May 14. (The calendar of ten thousand years falls on the 14th of May by leap)
7. The same is true for the "Five-day Retreat to Sanli Autumn Festival", which is based on the first spring day plus five days minus an hour, plus a few months. The first eight hours are 15 days, 13 hours and 14 days = 17 ugly days. There are four months from the beginning of spring to the beginning of autumn, so add four days.) The time of the calendar Festival is ugly on June 17.
8. "Bailu retreats one week on six days" is the same as "Bailu retreats one week on the first day of spring", plus six days minus one hour, plus the number of months, which is Bailu's Festival time: the first eight hours + six days, one hour and fourteen days = eighteen days Mao hours (four months between the first day of spring and Bailu, therefore four days), that is, on the eighteenth day of July, 1998. (2 sections of the calendar are at Yinshi on March 18)
9. "Six days of cold dew plus six hours" at the same time, six days and six hours at the beginning of spring, plus the number of small months in the middle, is the time of cold dew. Sixteen days at the beginning of 8th hour, six hours and fourteen days at the beginning of 16th day, are equal to the time of 18th day (four months between the beginning of spring and cold dew, therefore, four days). That is, the time of cold dew at the beginning of 18th August, 1998 (the time of the longeval calendar is the time of 18th August).
10. The same is true of the "six-day seven-hour tour in the beginning of winter". The time of the beginning of spring plus six days and seven hours, plus the number of small months in the middle, is the time of the beginning of winter. On September 19, 1998, the winter festival was held on September 19, 1998, because there were five hours between the beginning of spring and the beginning of winter. (The calendar falls at midnight on September 19)
11. "Heavy snow arrives at 4 o'clock on the 6th day." Similarly, the beginning of spring plus 6 days and 4 hours, plus the number of small months in the middle, is the time of heavy snow, and the 16th day and 4:15 days in the 8th hour equals the 19th day (the latter five days because there are five months between the beginning of spring and the heavy snow). So on October 19, 1998, when Shenzhen was due, the snow festival was held. (The calendar is scheduled for October 19)
Solar Terms and Customs
Twenty-four solar terms are divided into twelve months, about half a month apart. At the beginning of the month, it is called solar terms, and at the middle of the month, it is called "mid-qi". The so-called "qi" means weather and climate.
From small cold to valley rain, there are eight kinds of weather, one waiting every five days, a total of 24 waiting periods, each corresponding to a flower letter.
Twenty-four solar terms: spring rain, spring and clear valley, summer and summer are linked. Autumn dew autumn frost fall, winter snow winter small cold.
Lichun ranks first among the 24 solar terms, which people attach great importance to. The Spring Festival Ceremony was held in China 3000 years ago, and many fixed customs and habits have been formed so far.
Every year, around February 4 of the Gregorian calendar is the beginning of spring. At this time, the sun reaches 315 degrees of the Yellow Meridian, the first of the 24 solar terms of the lunar calendar. The beginning of spring means that everything has a vigorous life, and the four seasons of the year begin from then on.
In ancient China, Lichun was divided into three seasons: "one is thawed by the East wind, the second is started by the worm, and the third is negative by the ice." Flower letters corresponding to the three seasons are "one for spring, two for cherries and three for spring". It's about the east wind heating, and the earth begins to thaw. Five days after the dawn of spring, the insects slowly wake up in the cave. Five days later, the ice in the river begins to melt and the fish begins to swim on the water. At this time, there are still fragments of ice that have not completely melted on the water, floating on the surface as if they were carried by the fish.
Spring has arrived, but the winter cold has not disappeared, it takes a long time to slowly melt, the earth thaw can make everything revive, in order to have the soil for all things to grow, so the theory of "three phenomena" accurately reflects the characteristics and auspices of this stage of spring.
As the saying goes, "At the end of the first year of spring, planting land is planned early." After the beginning of spring, with the rise of temperature, the busy spring farming season will begin in most parts of the country.
"Spring Festival" is not only an important festival, but also a major festival. It is called "Spring Festival" by the Chinese people, and has some interesting customs such as eating spring cakes and whipping spring cattle. On the day of spring, an important custom is "biting the spring", also known as "biting the spring". The food eaten in the north is spring cakes, while spring rolls are popular in the south. Eating spring cakes and rolls is a good blessing for people to "plan for a year in spring". Therefore, this custom has continued to this day. It is worth mentioning that on the first day of spring, radish is another kind of food that Chinese people "bite the spring". It is generally said that the spring predicament can be solved. In fact, its significance is not limited to this, in addition to relieving difficulties, radish can also relieve alcohol, ventilation, nutrition, fitness, disease and other effects. In addition to "biting the spring", Chinese folk also have the custom of "beating the spring", also known as "whipping the spring cattle" and "whipping the earth cattle", which originated earlier. This way reflects people's good expectations for a bumper crop. Because when spring cattle are moulded, they often stuff five grains in their stomachs. When the cattle are broken, the five grains flow out. People laughed and picked up the grains and put them back in their barns, indicating that the barns were full. Some rural areas still have the custom of "whipping spring cattle". As the beginning of spring, "there is less ice and frost in the evening of Luhuai New Year, and spring comes to the knowledge of plants and trees on earth", which vividly reflects the natural scene of the Spring Festival. By the beginning of spring, people will obviously feel that the day is getting longer, the sun is warmer, and the temperature, sunshine and precipitation tend to rise or increase.
Rainwater is the second solar term in 24 solar terms. Every year around February 19, when the solar longitude reaches 330 degrees, it is rainwater with 24 solar terms. At this time, the temperature rises, ice and snow melts, and precipitation increases, so it is called rainwater. Rainwater season usually begins on February 18 or 19 and ends on March 4 or 5. Rain, like grain rain, light snow and heavy snow, is the solar term that reflects the phenomenon of precipitation.
"Moon Ling 72 Waiting Collection": "In the middle of the first month, the sky is full of water. The beginning of spring belongs to trees, but those who grow trees must have water, so the beginning of spring is followed by rain. And when the east wind thaws, it disperses into rain." It means that before and after the rainwater season, everything starts to sprout and spring is coming. For example, in Yizhou Shu, there are phenological records of "wild goose coming" and "grass sprouting" after rainwater festival.
In ancient times, the rainwater was divided into three seasons: one for the otter to sacrifice fish, two for the goose, and three for the grass and trees to germinate. In the season of "first waiting for cauliflower, second waiting for tangdi, third waiting for plum flower", the otter began to fish and put the fish on the shore like offering sacrifices before eating. Five days later, the geese began to fly back from the south to the north. Five days later, in the spring rain of "moistening things silently", the grass and trees began to pull out tender buds along with the rising sun in the ground. From then on, the earth gradually began to show a flourishing scene.
Rainwater not only indicates the beginning of rainfall and the increase of rainfall, but also indicates the increase of temperature. Before the rain, the weather was relatively cold. After rainwater, people obviously feel that spring returns to the earth, spring blossoms and spring fills the world, and the refreshing breath inspires the body and mind.
Insect-stricken solar terms
Traditionally, spring is the third solar term. That is to say, the solar period in the ecliptic from 345 to 360 degrees (0 degrees) begins on March 5 (or 6) and ends on March 20 (or 21) every year for about 15 days. At this time, the point of direct solar radiation moves from 5 degrees 57'S to the equator. In a narrow sense, it refers to the time when the startle begins and the sun passes through 345 Degrees of the Yellow Meridian on the earth, that is, on March 5 (or 6). In ancient times, there were three horrors: one waiting for Taoshihua, two waiting for Cangging (Oriole) to sing, and three waiting for eagles to turn into doves. The flower letters represented by the three symbols of surprise and sting are as follows: "Peach blossoms, apricot blossoms and roses in one season". "Moon Ling 72 Waiting Collection": "February Festival... Everything is stunned because of earthquakes and thunder. It was the sting that frightened him and ran away. It's mid-spring, when the weather gets warmer, spring thunder comes and hibernating animals begin to wake up. In Beijing, the ice of the North Sea melted, geese flew, bees began to fly in groups, spring snow ended, elm trees blossomed.
"Insect alarm" is a period when the weather becomes warmer and thunder strikes at the beginning of spring, which wakes up all kinds of insects dormant in the soil and hibernates. At this time, the eggs that pass the winter will begin to hatch. It can be seen that "Insect alarm" is a season reflecting natural phenomena. However, it is not the rumbling thunder that really awakens the hibernating animals, but the temperature in the earth when the temperature rises to a certain extent. There is a proverb that says, "Once stung, warm and peaceful, the old horn of clam sings a mountain song", "Thunder shocked the rice, stunned the rice, stunned the rummy like mud". This means that it's normal to hear thunder on a frightening day or in the future. It's a good year with good weather and good weather.
After the "stunning" solar term, the warm and humid air mass in the South began to be active, and the temperature increased significantly. The average annual air-conditioning temperature in Huaibei is 6-7 C, and in the south of Huaihe River is 7-8 C, which is 3 C or more higher than the "rainwater" air-conditioning. The temperature of Huanghuai region in this solar term has steadily risen from south to north to above 5 C, while the temperature has steadily risen to 5 C, which is an important meteorological limit temperature for agricultural production. It indicates that trees begin to germinate and grow in spring, and that spring crops begin to sow. The average annual seasonal rainfall is 15-20 mm in Huaibei and 20-40 mm in the south of Huaihe River.
Thunderstorm, insects "frightened out", from the soil, caves out, so ants began to move, gradually throughout the fields, homes, or damage crops, or disturb life. Therefore, there are different insecticidal rituals among Chinese people all over the country during the period of stunning.
Hakka people use "fried insects" to achieve the purpose of eliminating insects. On this day of surprise, some areas want to eat fried beans. In ethnic minority areas, the Yao people in Jinxiu, Guangxi, eat "fried insects" when they are stung. After the "fried insects" are cooked, they are placed in the hall. The whole family sits around and eats together. They also shout, "Fried insects are eaten, fried insects are eaten!" We have to compete when we are happy. The quicker we eat and the louder we chew, the more we congratulate him on his success in eliminating pests. In fact, "insect" is corn, which is taken as its symbolic meaning.
the Spring Equinox
The fourth solar term in a year. At that time, the equinox between day and night, that is, the period of time (about 15.2 days) from 0 to 15 on the Yellow Meridian, starting on March 20 (or 21) and ending on April 4 (or 5) every year. At this time, the point of direct solar radiation moves from the equator to 5 degrees 57'N. In a narrow sense, it refers to the time when the spring breaks apart and the sun passes through the intersection of the Yellow longitude and the equator (ascending intersection) on the celestial sphere; that is, March 20 (or 21). Because this time is at the midpoint of spring, this intersection is also called the vernal equinox. The vernal equinox and the autumn equinox are called the dichotomy. The vernal equinox is a global astronomical term, but the vernal equinox in the Southern Hemisphere refers to the point at which the eastern longitude 180 degrees intersects the equator and the sun passes on September 23 (or 24). The vernal equinox in Chinese literature usually refers to the intersection of the longitude of the Yellow River at 0 degrees with the equator. The determination of the vernal equinox began in the Shang Dynasty (about 1821-20th century BC).
Ancient Spring Equinox is divided into three parts: "one waiting for Xuanwu arrival, two waiting for thunder to sound, three waiting for electricity to start." That is to say, after the Spring Equinox, swallows will fly from the south. When it rains, the sky will thunder and lightning. "The Collection of Seventy-two Hours of the Moon Ling" has: "In February, the divider is half, which is half of the ninetieth day, so it is called half." "Fanlu in Spring and Autumn, Yin and Yang in and out of the upper and lower chapters" has: "Spring Festival, Yin and Yang are also half, so day and night are good for cold and summer." The sun shines directly on the equator on this day, almost as long as day and night in the world. Later, the position of the direct sunshine point moved northward, the length of day and night in the northern hemisphere was short, while the length of day and night in the southern hemisphere was short. Astronomically, spring is divided into spring. At this time, winter crops in most parts of China entered the spring growth stage. Central China Agricultural Proverb: "Spring equinox wheat rises, a moment is worth a thousand gold". In Beijing, trees such as hickory, Canadian poplar, forsythia, apricot and Magnolia have blossomed one after another. Spring Equinox Flower Letter: "One Wait for Begonia, Two Wait for Pear Flowers, Three Wait for Mulan."
During the Spring Equinox, most of Northwest China, North China and Northeast China are still in the transition period from winter to spring, with windy sunshine and warm and cold at first. According to the statistics of the weather in this area in recent years, April is the most, followed by March. The fifteenth day of the Spring Equinox falls between the end of March and the beginning of April. In these areas, the blowing sand caused by strong winds and the floating dust in the air, especially the pollution caused by dust storms, have always attracted public attention and become a hot topic for the time being.
On the day of the Spring Equinox, tens of millions of people around the world are doing "egg erection" experiments. So far, it is difficult to prove why this so-called "Chinese custom" has become a "world game". But it's easy and interesting: Choose a smooth, well-proportioned fresh egg that has just been laid for four or five days and stand it up on the table with your hands and feet. Although there are many losers, there are many winners. Spring is divided into the best time of the egg-erecting game, so there is the saying of "the spring equinox arrives, the eggs are lovely". The erected eggs are not beautiful.
"When swallows come to Spring Club, pear blossoms lag behind Qingming." Following the rhythm of spring, China will usher in another important traditional festival, Qingming Festival, on April 5. Folklore experts said that as a folk festival with a long history and great influence in the real society, the name of "Qingming Festival" contains a profound "cultural code". Flower Letter of Qingming Dynasty: "One for Tonghua, two for Maihua and three for Willow Flowers."
The Qingming Dynasty originated from the Qingming Style. In the Spring and Autumn Period, Guoyu recorded that there were eight winds in a year, among which "Qingming wind" belonged to Sung, that is, "Yang Qi rises, everything is in harmony". In Liu An's "Huainanzi Astronomical Training" of the Han Dynasty, there is also a record of "Fifteen days after the Spring Equinox, Dou Zhiyi, then Qingming Fengzhi".
The ancients named all the "Eight Winds" in a year: Eastern Wind is called Mingshufeng, Southern Wind is called Jingfeng (also known as Kaifeng), Westerly Wind is called Luan Wind, Northern Wind is called Guangmofeng, Northeast Wind is called Tiaofeng (also known as Rongfeng), Southeast Wind is called Qingming Wind, Northwest Wind is called not Zhou Feng, Southwest Wind is called Cool Wind.
"The Qingming wind is one of the eight winds in a year. It is a warm and fresh wind that blows 45 days after the winter solstice and 45 days after the scenery wind. Before and after the Qingming Dynasty, it was a good time to plant crops, when the rain and wind were popular.
"During the Qingming Dynasty, there was a flood of rain, and pedestrians on the road wanted to break their souls." Du Mu, a poet of Tang Dynasty, vividly outlines the picture of "Qingming Rain". In the Qingming Dynasty, when the conflict between cold and warm air was fierce, the weakened cold air in the north and the warm and wet air in the south often confronted each other along the Yangtze River, resulting in the frequent "warm and cold, sunny and rainy again" in the south of the Yangtze River. "Qingming Rain" is particularly important for plant growth. Agricultural proverbs have the saying that "a rain around Qingming is better than that of a scholar".
During the Qingming Festival, it is not appropriate to eat "hair" foods, such as bamboo shoots and chickens. Can eat more liver and lung-nourishing food, such as shepherd's purse, liver-benefiting and middle; spinach, five Zang organs, blood circulation; yam, spleen and lung-nourishing; light vegetables, Yin-benefiting, water conservation.
In spring, the elderly with hyperactivity of liver-yang are particularly prone to headache and dizziness, which is what traditional Chinese medicine calls "spring-qi is the first disease". Chronic tracheitis in the elderly is also prone to attack in spring. The dietary prevention and treatment method is to eat more food with expectorant, spleen-strengthening, Kidney-Tonifying and lung-nourishing.
The Valley rain season in April of the Gregorian calendar is different from the rainwater season in February of early spring, although it has the same word "rain". Rain season, no snow flying, listening to the silent spring rain, means that the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River began to rain. The name of the grain rain season comes from the ancients'saying that "rain produces a hundred valleys", which indicates that the precipitation during this period is very important for the growth of crops. But the word "grain rain" refers not only to millet, a kind of crop, but also to the general name of the crop. Proverbs say that "no rain in the valley, return to the landlord" is the opposite point of view to illustrate the importance of rain. The following are the main weather features during the valley rain period:
Because of the changeable weather in spring, we are very particular about diet and health. When the grain rain comes, it is late spring. How can we eat healthy food and eat food suitable for this season? The climate in late spring is complex, but how windy the weather is in most areas, at this time, the human body is prone to loss of water, the resistance will decrease, and it is easy to induce and aggravate colds and many chronic diseases. At this time, "fill" water is particularly important. After a night of spring sleep, the body consumes more water. Drinking water in the morning can not only supplement the lost water due to body metabolism, wash the emptied intestines and stomach, but also effectively prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is advisable to drink 250 ml of water. Because the temperature is low and the climate is wet and cold, we need to keep warm. There is a custom of eating fried corn in the south. Cuckoos began to come out and call.
According to the 24 solar terms, the grain rain is the last one in spring. The Grain Rain in late spring means that spring is over and summer is approaching. There are fewer cases of large-scale South invasion of cold air, but the activities of cold air affecting the north are not ceaseless. From the end of April to the beginning of May, after all, the temperature is much higher than that in March, the soil is dry and loose, the air layer is unstable, the upper wind momentum is downward, the front cyclone is active, and the gale and dust weather caused by them are common.
During the valley rains in 1993, 1995, 1998 and 2005, there were strong sandstorms and sandstorms. Among them, on May 5, 1993, a black wind occurred in Jinchang City, Gansu Province. The maximum instantaneous wind speed reached 34 m/s (level 12), visibility dropped sharply to zero. Sandstorm walls formed by wind and sand reached 300-400 M. There were three layers of structure in the upper and lower layers. There were globular dust masses rolling in each layer. The lowest layer was black, and the middle and upper layers were red and yellow, moving from west to east at a speed of 90 km/h. Temperature was very acute in all parts of the country. The lowest temperature dropped to - 2 - 2 C. It has caused serious casualties and economic losses, which is horrifying to this day.
The wide range of floating dust weather, the dusk sky and the fallen yellow dust have eclipsed the scenes depicted by the poet as grass warblers flying, red flowers and willows green, and full of spring. Gu Yuhuashen: "One peony, two peony, three neem flowers."
May 5 is the first summer of the lunar calendar. "Dou refers to the southeast, Wei Wei Li Xia, everything has grown up here, so it is also known as Li Xia." At this time, the Sun's Yellow Meridian is 45 degrees. In astronomy, Lixia expresses that it is about to say goodbye to spring, which is the beginning of summer.
It is customary for people to regard the beginning of summer as an important season for crops to grow in the peak season because of the obvious increase of temperature, the coming of hot summer, the increase of thunderstorms. After early summer, it is the key period for large-scale planting of early rice, and the time of rainwater coming and the amount of rainfall in this period are closely related to the future harvest.
Farmer's proverb is good: "If you can't stand summer, the plough and harrow hang high." "No rain in summer, no rice in buntou." There is also the custom of weighing people who are afraid of the hot summer. After weighing people on this day, they will not be afraid of the hot summer and will not lose weight. Otherwise, they will suffer from diseases. There is also the custom of drinking tea in Lixia in Jiangxi. It is said that if you don't drink Lixia tea, you will suffer a whole summer. As early as in ancient times, the emperors often went out to greet the summer in the early days of summer. The day to greet the summer was to start the summer.
"Book of Rites, Yueling" explains that Lixia said: "crickets, earthworms, Wang Guasheng, bitter vegetable show." It shows that at this time of year, frogs begin to whisper about the coming of summer. Earthworms are also busy helping farmers turn over the soil. Wild vegetables on the country ridges are also competing with each other to unearth and grow day by day. In the early morning, when people are walking in the countryside and beach facing the early summer sunshine, you will feel the deep feeling of nature from the gentle sunshine.
In summer, everything is flourishing. In the book "Eight Rings of Lotus Birth" written by the Ming Dynasty, "On the day of Mengxia, heaven and earth begin to pay attention to each other, and all things show together." At this time, the summer crop entered the later stage of growth, winter wheat flowering and filling, rapeseed approaching maturity, the summer harvest crop year is basically fixed, so the agricultural proverb has the theory of "starting summer to see summer". The management of rice planting and other spring crops has also entered a busy season. Therefore, China has always attached great importance to the Lixia Festival. According to records, during the Zhou Dynasty, on the day of Lixia, the emperor led all the civil and military officials to "greet summer" in the suburbs, and instructed the officers and apprentices to go to various places to encourage farmers to grasp the cultivation.
Around the beginning of summer, the temperature in North China and Northwest China rose rapidly, but the precipitation was still not much. In addition, the spring was windy and the evaporation was strong. The dry atmosphere and soil drought often seriously affected the normal growth of crops. In particular, the dry and hot air before and after milking of wheat is an important disastrous weather leading to yield reduction. Timely irrigation is the key measure for drought resistance and disaster prevention. "Hoe everywhere for three days in the early summer", when weeds grow very fast, "one day without weeding, three days without weeding." Medium tillage and weeding can not only remove weeds, resist drought and prevent waterlogging, but also improve soil temperature and accelerate the decomposition of soil nutrients. It is very important to promote the robust growth of cotton, corn, sorghum, peanut and other crops in seedling stage.
Lesser Fullness of Grain
The small full solar term is also the second solar term in summer. "Dou nails for small full, everything is longer than this little full, wheat to this small full but not fully ripe, so the name is also." This means that since Xiao Man, summer crops such as barley and winter wheat have already yielded fruits, and the grains are gradually full, but not yet mature, so Xiao Man is called Xiao Man. Xiao Man, the Yellow Meridian of the Sun is 60 degrees. It is a solar term that represents phenological changes. The so-called phenology refers to natural flowers, plants, trees, birds and animals, according to a certain season and season activities, which are closely related to climate change. Therefore, their activities have become seasonal symbols, such as plant germination, leaf germination, flowering, fruiting, yellowing, leaf fall, animal dormancy, recovery, initial song, breeding, migration and so on, which are constrained by climate change. People call these phenomena phenology.
China is the first country in the world to study phenology. The Book of Songs records that "April Xiuluo, May Mingyu, August jujube peeling, October rice harvesting". Xia Xiaozheng, the earliest monograph on phenology in China in the early Western Han Dynasty, recorded phenology, meteorology, astronomical phenomena and important political and agricultural activities, such as farming, silkworm rearing and horse raising, in the order of 12 months a year. Since then, the contents of phenology have been recorded in Lv's Spring and Autumn Period and Li Ji, and gradually developed into 24 solar terms and 72 solar terms in a year. Ancient China used five days as one season and three seasons as one solar term. From winter to spring, there are 24 seasons in the eight seasons, from cold to rain. Each season has a kind of flower blooming and blooming. People call the wind blown when the flowers blossom "flower trade wind" (meaning the wind that brings the blooming news). So there is the saying of "Twenty-four Crocuses Trade Style". In order to accurately describe it, people choose the most accurate florescence plant as the representative among the plants that blossom in each of the 24 seasons, and call it the florescence trade wind of this season.
Xiaomanjie Health Preservation
Literally speaking, Xiao Man means that the seeds of summer crops begin to be full but immature. From the environmental point of view, after Xiaofu, the weather gradually became hot and the rain began to increase. It foreshadows the coming of hot and humid summer. According to the characteristics of this climate, Xiao Man's health-preserving emphasis is on dispelling dampness and heat and invigorating the spleen and stomach. In diet, we should pay attention to eating more food with the functions of clearing heat, nourishing yin, dispelling dampness, warming stomach, warming and tonifying, and taboo spicy stimulating food and high-calorie greasy food.
Solar Term of Apricot Seeds
Mango seed: one of the 24 solar terms. Every year around June 6, when the sun reaches 75 degrees of the Yellow Meridian, it begins. "Tongwei Xiaojing Aid God's deed": "Fifteen days after Xiaomang, Dou Zhi-c, is Mangzhi, May Day. Words can be sown in the valley of awns." The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China will enter the rainy yellow plum season.
Awn seeds - wheat and other awn crops mature, and summer planting begins. Around June 5 of each year, awn seeds are planted. The sun reaches 75 degrees in the Yellow Meridian. "Moon Ling 72 Waiting Annotation": "May Festival, it is said that the awn can be planted grain can be planted. It means that the seeds of awn crops such as barley and wheat have matured and are in urgent need of harvesting. Late valley, millet, millet and other summer crops are also the busiest season to sow, so it is also known as "awn seed". Spring contests for days, summer contests, "contest for time" refers to this season's busy harvesting farmers. It is often said that "three summers" busy season refers to the summer tube busy with summer harvest, summer planting and spring planting crops.
In ancient times, Mang seeds were divided into three parts: "one waiting for mantis; two waiting for Peng to start singing; three waiting for silence." In this solar season, the eggs laid by mantis in late autumn break their shells and give birth to small Mantis because they feel the birth of Yin Qi; the shady shrill birds begin to appear on the branches and feel shady and sing; on the contrary, the tongue-repellent birds who can learn other birds'chirps stop chirping because they sense the appearance of Yin Qi.
Northeast China: winter and spring wheat irrigation and topdressing. The rice seedlings have been transplanted. Millet, corn, sorghum and cotton seedlings. Soybeans and sweet potatoes are scooped for the first time. Sorghum, millet and corn were shoveled twice. Cotton leaves, rice weeding, preparation for topdressing, pest control, hail suppression.
North China: Generally, wheat fields begin to be harvested. Harvest in summer and plant in summer at the same time. Strengthen cotton field management, aphid control, watering and topdressing. Northwest China: Winter wheat to control diseases and pests. Spring maize watering, cultivation, weeding, topdressing. In millet cultivation and weeding, seedling thinning, millet seeding, seedling inspection, seedling repair.
In Southwest China, spring crops are rushed to be planted and rice is transplanted in time. Harvest the summer crops by snatching the sunshine. With harvest, with tillage, with planting. Central China: grab the clear harvest wheat and select the wheat seeds. Grab summer maize, summer sorghum, summer soybean, sesame and so on. Mid-season rice is topdressed with fertilizer and dried with drainage at the end of growing. Strengthen the management of Single-cropping late rice and remove impurities conscientiously.
In the northern region, single-crop late rice between wheat-stubble rice and Jianghuai rice began to be planted. Double-cropping late rice seedling raising. Control of diseases and insect pests in paddy fields. Growing soil and weeding in woodland. South China: Early rice topdressing, middle rice topdressing. Late rice sowing, early corn harvest, early soybean harvest, late soybean sowing. Planting sugarcane in spring and winter, cultivating and topdressing in perennial root sugarcane, small soil cultivation and aphid control.
Specific dietary therapy and recipes for awn seed solar terms.
Scrambled egg with tomato:
300 grams of tomatoes, 3 eggs, proper amount of salt, monosodium glutamate and sugar.
Tomatoes are washed and sliced, and eggs are stirred in a bowl.
Cook the eggs in a frying pan and put them in a bowl. Rinse the frying pan, heat the oil and melt the sugar in the pan. Pour the tomatoes into the pan and fry for 2 minutes. Stir the eggs and salt in the pan for 3 minutes, then put a little monosodium glutamate out of the pan. (Diabetics don't use sugar)
nourishing body fluid to quench thirst, nourishing the mind and calming the mind.
Lentinus edodes and wax gourd balls:
Lentinus edodes, chicken soup, starch, 300 grams of wax gourd, vegetable oil, essential salt, ginger, monosodium glutamate and sesame oil.
Mushroom water, wash, peel and wash wax gourd, use steel ball spoon to dig into ball treatment, ginger wash and cut shreds.
Heat up the pot with proper amount of vegetable oil, stir-fry ginger shredded, stir-fry Lentinus edodes for a few minutes, then boil the chicken soup. Cook the wax gourd balls in the pot until they are ripe. Stir-fry with starch, add MSG and sprinkle with sesame oil, and then leave the pot.
nourishing intestines and stomach, generating body fluid and eliminating boredom.
the Summer Solstice
Summer solstice is the summer solstice on June 21 or 22 every year, when the sun shines directly on the Tropic of Cancer, which is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere. Most of the southern parts of the world spend about 14 hours from sunrise to sunset. Although the summer solstice has the longest day and the highest angle of the sun, it is not the hottest time of the year. Because the heat close to the surface is still accumulating at this time, and it has not reached the maximum. As the saying goes, "Hot in three volts", the real hot summer weather is based on the summer solstice and the beginning of autumn. Around mid-July to mid-August, temperatures are highest in all parts of China, and in some areas the highest temperatures can reach about 40 degrees.
Summer Solstice is also called "Summer Festival" and "Summer Solstice Festival" in ancient times. In ancient times, people prayed for calamity and prosperity by offering sacrifices to gods in the summer solstice. "Zhou Li, Chun Guan" contains: "Summer solstice, to local things. In the Zhou Dynasty, the summer solstice offering sacrifices to gods meant to eradicate epidemics, years of famine and death from hunger. Records of the History of Fengchan recorded: "In the summer solstice, sacrifices to the earth are performed with music and dance." As an ancient festival, the Summer Solstice began in the Song Dynasty on the day of the Summer Solstice, and all officials had three days off. In the Liao Dynasty, the "Summer Solstice is called the"Chao Festival". Women entered the colorful fans and bequeathed each other with pink bags" (History of Liao Dynasty). In the Qing Dynasty, when the Summer Solstice was handed in, at sunrise, at second and at the end, it was called the "Three Times". People lived cautiously, cursed, abstained from shaving, and were often tabooed.
"Su Wen Si Qi Tiao Shen Da Lun" said: "Make ambition not angry, make Hua Ying become beautiful, make anger to be discouraged, if you love outside, this summer should be the way to grow up. That is to say, in summer, we should be refreshed, happy, broad-minded and full of spirit. As everything needs sunshine to grow, we should have a strong interest in external things and cultivate an optimistic and extroverted personality to facilitate the ventilation of qi. On the contrary, it is inappropriate to be lazy, tired, annoyed and depressed, which hinders the chances of jumping. Ji Kang's Theory of Health Preservation has his own unique view on the hot summer. He thinks that it is better to calm down in the hot summer, as ice and snow are in my heart. The hot heart is also less in my heart. It can't turn heat into heat to make it more hot. That is to say, "calm mind and cool nature", what is said here is the spiritual nurturing in the summer health preservation law.
There is the theory that when the heart is hot in summer, when the heart is too hot, the lung and gold can be overcome (the viewpoint of the five elements). Therefore, the synopsis of the golden chamber has the saying that "summer does not eat the heart". According to the relationship among the five elements (summer is fire), fifty percent (summer is long), five zang organs (heart) and five tastes (bitterness), bitter things can also help the heart and make the lung. Summer is also a sweaty season, sweating more, salt loss is also more, if the myocardial salt deficiency, heart beat will appear abnormal. Chinese medicine believes that at this time should eat more sour, to fix the surface, eat more salty to tonify the heart. "Su Wen Zang Qi Fa Shi Lun" said: Heart dominates Xia, "Heart is bitter and slow, eat sour quickly to harvest it", "Heart desire, eat salty quickly to harvest it, use salty to supplement it, diarrhea it". That is to say, the reservoir gas is soft, so it is salty and soft. From the point of view of Yin-yang theory, the food should not be too cold in summer when the moon is overcast. As the collection of Yishen says, "Heart is exuberant and kidney failure in summer, although it is too hot to eat cold snow, honey, cold powder and cold porridge. If you are full and cold, you will get cholera." Heart exuberance and kidney failure, that is, the meaning of external heat and internal cold, because of its external heat and internal cold, it is not appropriate to eat more cold food, less is still okay, greed will cold the spleen and stomach, making people vomit and diarrhea.
Watermelon, mung bean soup and black plum and small bean soup are good for quenching thirst and relieving heat, but they should not be eaten cold. According to the relationship between the kidney and the kidney in traditional Chinese medicine, "The fire of the kidney without intention is cold, while the water of the heart without kidney is hot." It is not difficult to see the important relationship between heart and kidney.
One of the 24 solar terms in China is the summer festival, which is traditionally the fifth in summer. It is about 15.7 days from 105 to 120 of the ecliptic.
Summer is hot; Xiaoshu is the beginning of hot weather. July 06-08, Gregorian calendar. Before and after the summer, thunderstorms increased in most parts of our province. Thunderstorms are a severe weather phenomenon, often accompanied by short-term strong winds and rainstorms, and sometimes hailstorms, which are easy to cause disasters. We should also pay attention to prevention.
July 7, will usher in the summer festival, marking the beginning of midsummer season. As the saying goes, "spring sleepiness, autumn fatigue, summer napping". In midsummer, when the weather is sultry, many people often feel tired and depressed, and always want to sleep, that is, "summer nap". Nutrition experts say eating more potassium-containing foods, eating more vinegar and ensuring adequate sleep can drive away drowsiness.
"Summer napping" is also called "summer burnout" in medicine. Summer is hot and the temperature is too high, which makes the human body sweat a lot. Potassium element is discharged with sweat in large quantities, which leads to people's fatigue, mental depression and "summer nap". From the point of view of traditional Chinese medicine, due to the sultry heat, the human body is easy to consume vital energy, and people with deficiency of Qi and Yin are more vulnerable to the attack of summer sleepiness.
Although "summer napping" is a protective response of the human body, it sometimes has some minor effects on work, study and life. In order to prevent "summer napping", Li Yanling suggested that "summer napping" is caused by the loss of potassium in the body. Therefore, we should pay more attention to potassium supplementation in midsummer.
The best way to supplement potassium is to eat more potassium-rich foods in daily diet, such as potatoes, red beans, fresh peas, edamame, rape, celery, spinach, kelp, laver, milk, goose meat, carp, eel and so on. At this time, we should also eat more vinegar, because vinegar can promote the safe oxidation of lactic acid in vivo and regulate the acidity and alkalinity of body fluids to return to neutral, help to alleviate fatigue, stimulate the spirit, and restore physical strength and energy.
Summer is one of the 24 solar terms. Every year on July 23 or 24, the sun reaches 120 degrees in the Yellow Meridian. "Moon Ling 72 Waiting Collection": "In mid-June,... Summer heat, heat, heat in the middle of the size, the beginning of the month is small, the middle of the month is large, now the hot Judah also. It is the hottest period of the year around the "mid-dormant" period, with the highest temperature and the fastest growth of crops. Drought, waterlogging and wind disasters are also the most frequent in most areas. The tasks of grabbing and rushing seeds, anti-drought, drainage and waterlogging, and field management are very heavy. Chinese people have the custom of drinking fucha, drying Fujian and burning fuxiang.
Liqiu is the thirteenth solar term in the 24 solar terms. It begins on August 7, 8 or 9 every year. "Autumn" means the beginning of autumn when summer comes to cool. By the beginning of autumn, the plane trees must begin to fall leaves, so there is the idiom "fall a leaf and know autumn". From the literary point of view, the word "autumn" is composed of the words "He" and "Huo", which means "grain maturity". Autumn is the first solar term in autumn, and autumn is a transitional season from hot to cool, then from cool to cold.
Summer is the 14th solar term in the 24 solar terms. The summer season is around August 23 every year. At this time the sun reaches 150 degrees of the Yellow Meridian. According to the "Moon Ling 72 Waiting Collection" said: "Where, go, the summer is over." It means that the hot summer is coming to an end. Although the daily average temperature in Beijing, Taiyuan, Xi'an, Chengdu and the East and south of Guiyang and the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang is still above 22 degrees Celsius and in summer, the next number of cold air in the South increases and the temperature drops gradually.
Bailu Solar Term
White dews is the fifteenth solar term in the twenty-four solar terms. At this time, the temperature began to drop, the weather became cooler, and there was dew on the grass and trees in the morning. The seventh day of September in the Gregorian calendar is Bailu. In ancient China, Bailu was divided into three seasons: "one is a wild goose; the other is a Xuanbi; the third is a group of shy birds." It is the time when wild geese and swallows wait for birds to fly south to escape the cold. Hundreds of birds begin to store dried fruits for winter. It can be seen that Bailu is actually a symbol of cooling weather.
The autumnal equinox, the 16th solar term in the 24 solar terms of the lunar calendar, usually takes place on September 22 or 23 each year. The climate in the South begins with this solar season. The first is that the sun reaches 180 degrees at the longitude of the Yellow River on this day and shoots directly at the equator of the earth, so that the day is 24 hours a day and 12 hours a day, and the globe has no polar day and night phenomena. After the autumn equinox, the range of polar night near the Arctic becomes larger and the range of polar day near the Antarctic becomes larger.
Cold dew is the seventeenth solar term in the twenty-fourth solar term of the lunar calendar. Every October 8 or 9, when the sun reaches 195 degrees of the Yellow Meridian, it is regarded as cold dew. "Moon Ling 72 Waiting Collection" said: "September Festival, dew cold, will also condense. Cold dew means that the temperature is lower than that of white dew, and the dew on the ground is colder and is about to frost. During the cold dew season, the autumn has come to Nanling and the vast areas to the north, and winter has entered or is about to enter the northeast and northwest regions.
Frost falls, the eighteenth solar term in the twenty-fourth solar term of the lunar calendar. Frost-fall season contains the meaning of colder weather and the appearance of the first frost. It is the last season in autumn. It also means the beginning of winter. Frost-fall season and health care are particularly important. There is a Chinese folk proverb that "it is better to make up the whole year than to make up the frost".
"Lidong" is the nineteenth solar term in the twenty-fourth solar term of the lunar calendar. Every November 7 or 8, the ancient Chinese folk custom began with winter. China has a vast territory. Except for the coastal areas of South China without winter all year round and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau without summer in winter, winter does not start all over the country at the same time as the beginning of winter. Lidong, Lichun, Lixia and Liqiu are called "Four Rights", which is an important festival in ancient society. On this day, the emperor will lead the civil and military officials to set up altars to worship in the northern suburbs of Beijing. On the day of winter, people should also celebrate.
Snow is the 20th solar term in the 24 solar terms of the lunar calendar. November 22 or 23 is the snowy season. The northeasterly winds in vast areas of China began to become frequent visitors, and the temperature dropped gradually to below 0 C. However, the land has not been too cold. Although it began to snow, but the amount of snow is not large, so it is called light snow. At this time, Yang Qi rises, Yin Qi falls, and the sky and the earth are impassable, Yin and Yang do not intersect, everything loses its vitality, the sky and the earth are blocked and turn into the winter. The early snow in the area north of the Yellow River reminds people that it is time to keep warm and cold. The snowy season of 2011 arrived at 0.8 on November 23.
Heavy snow season
"Heavy snow" is the 21st solar term in the 24 solar terms of the lunar calendar. Usually on December 7 of each year (6 or 8 of individual years), the sun reaches 255 degrees longitude at that time. "Moon Ling 72 Waiting Collection" said: "So far the snow is also full. Heavy snow means that the weather is colder and the possibility of snowfall is greater than that of light snow. It does not mean that the amount of snowfall must be large. On the contrary, after heavy snow, precipitation in all parts of the country is further reduced. The average precipitation in December in Northeast and North China is only a few millimeters, while in Northwest China it is less than 1 millimeter. When heavy snow and snow are classified according to the amount of snow, the average amount of snow falls is 5.0-10 millimeters.
The Winter Solstice
Winter Solstice is the 22nd solar term in the 24 solar terms of the lunar calendar. Winter Solstice is a very important solar term in Chinese lunar calendar and a traditional festival of the Chinese nation. It is commonly known as "Winter Festival", "Long Solstice Festival" and "Asian Age". As early as the Spring and Autumn Period more than 2500 years ago, China had observed the sun with Tugui and measured the winter solstice. It was the earliest one in the 24 solar terms, which was formulated from December 21 to 23 of the lunar calendar every year. During the day, it is the shortest day and the longest night in the whole year in the Northern Hemisphere. In most parts of northern China, dumplings and dumplings are also eaten in the south.
Xiaohan is the 23rd solar term in the 24 solar terms of the lunar calendar. Between January 5 and 7 of the Gregorian calendar, the sun lies at 285 degrees along the Yellow Meridian. For China, Xiaohan marks the beginning of the coldest day of the year. According to China's meteorological data, the cold season is the lowest in temperature, and only a few years of the cold season is lower than the cold season.
Cold is one of the 24 solar terms and the last one. Every year around January 20, when the sun reaches 300 degrees of the Yellow Meridian, it is very cold. "Moon Ling 72 Waiting Collection": "In mid-December, before the opinion (Xiaohan)." Tianshi quotes Sanli Yizong: "Big cold is the middle, superficial in small cold, so it's called big.The extreme adversity of cold is called severe cold. At this time, the cold wave frequently descends to the south, which is the coldest period of the year in most parts of China. The wind is strong, the temperature is low, and the snow on the ground does not melt, showing a cold scene of ice, snow and cold. During this period, railway, post and telecommunications, petroleum, maritime transport and other departments should pay special attention to the early adoption of measures to prevent disastrous weather such as strong winds, cooling, heavy snow and so on. In agriculture, we should strengthen the cold and freeze prevention of livestock and wintering crops.
The Significance of Solar Term
A part of the 24 solar terms has gradually become a popular festival, and combined with folk customs, it has developed into a festival culture with distinct regional characteristics. For example, Winter Solstice Festival, after thousands of years of development, has formed a unique festival culture. So far, Taiwan still maintains the tradition of sacrificing ancestors with nine-layer cakes in the winter solstice season to show that they will never forget their ancestors and their "roots". Finally, the application of the 24 solar terms for the "non-legacy" of the world is a project that conforms to the development trend of human civilization. The 24 solar terms of the lunar calendar are the precipitation of the wisdom of the working people in ancient China. They are also unprecedented achievements in human astronomy and farming technology. They are also milestones for human beings to respect nature and move towards freedom. It should go abroad to show the world China's ancient creation, rich and diverse folk culture and art, and inject the gene of Chinese traditional culture into world civilization.
As early as May 2006, the 24 solar terms of the lunar calendar were included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists. In April 2014, the Ministry of Culture officially launched the declaration of "24 solar terms" to be included in the UNESCO list of intangible cultural heritage of mankind, which is a natural and appropriate project. We look forward to the early success of the 24 solar terms application for the "non-legacy" of the world, and to the re-blooming of the flower of Oriental wisdom.
The eleventh regular session of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage (hereinafter referred to as the "Committee") was held at the Conference Center of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 28 November to 2 December 2016. On the afternoon of November 30, after review, the Committee formally adopted a resolution to include the 24 solar terms declared by China, the time knowledge system and practice formed by the Chinese people through observing the solar anniversary movement, in the list of UNESCO representatives of the intangible cultural heritage of mankind.
Solar Term Relevance